CICERO: The Breakthrough AI Reshaping Cooperative Gameplay

Meta AI introduces CICERO, the first artificial intelligence (AI) agent capable of performing at a human level in Diplomacy, a strategy game that demands cooperation, negotiation, and trust-building amongst multiple players. The groundbreaking development of CICERO represents a significant milestone in cooperative AI.

Technical Details

  • CICERO's core components include a controllable dialogue model and a planning engine.
  • These components allow CICERO to predict other players' moves and generate free-form dialogue based on the game state and past conversations.
  • CICERO integrates a language model with strategic reasoning algorithms, enabling cooperation with human players by understanding objectives, proposing shared goals, and communicating with strategic intent.


  1. Strategic Dialogue Generation CICERO can ground conversations in carefully chosen plans, providing mutual benefits to itself and other players. It can formulate and express strategies that align with the ongoing gameplay, whether negotiating a critical move or discussing broader game dynamics. 
  2. Superior Performance in Diplomacy In webDiplomacy.net, an online version of Diplomacy, CICERO proved its capability by scoring more than double the average score of human players. It ranked among the top 10% of participants who played more than one game, demonstrating its proficiency at understanding and strategically playing the game. 


  1. Specificity to Diplomacy One of the limitations of CICERO is that its strategies and dialogue models are custom-built for the Diplomacy game. The AI's ability to interpret and respond may not directly apply to other contexts or games.
  2. Challenges in Balancing Reasoning and Language Processing While integrating strategic reasoning with natural language processing is a crucial strength of CICERO, it also poses a challenge. The delicate balance between the two can be hard to maintain and may affect the AI's overall performance.
  3. Performance in Other Cooperative Tasks CICERO's high performance in Diplomacy does not guarantee equivalent success in other cooperative tasks. The AI's limitations may become more apparent when faced with diverse scenarios or functions requiring different strategies and skills.


  1. Enhanced Social and Gaming Experiences CICERO's capabilities can be utilized to create more immersive social and gaming experiences. Understanding and responding to strategic discussions and casual conversations can enhance user engagement and satisfaction in a game environment.
  2. Potential Contribution to the Metaverse In the developing metaverse, technology like CICERO's can aid in building cooperative agents. These AI could help people learn new skills, negotiate deals, and connect meaningfully with others in a virtual setting.
  3. Open-source Resource for Developers Meta AI has open-sourced CICERO's code, enabling other developers to build upon their work. This makes CICERO a valuable resource for researchers and developers interested in advancing cooperative AI for gaming applications or broader uses.


CICERO is the stepping stone towards building cooperative agents to contribute to individuals and the broader world. Meta AI has allowed other developers to build upon their work, offering open-source code, methods, and models.

As the AI community continues to leverage this research breakthrough, the future of AI, particularly cooperative AI, promises exciting advancements.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What is the use of CICERO?

    CICERO is an AI agent developed by Meta AI to play the strategy game "Diplomacy" at a human level. It is designed to understand and engage in complex negotiations, build trust, and strategize, showcasing a deep integration of language and action in a dynamic environment. The development of CICERO represents a significant milestone in AI research, illustrating the potential of AI in collaborating and negotiating with humans in intricate settings, which can potentially be applied in various fields beyond gaming.

  2. How does CICERO work?
  3. Is CICERO open source?
  4. How do I use Meta CICERO?